- Cells are referred to by their column letter and row number (ex: A2).
- A series of cells are referred to by showing the starting and ending cells, separated by a colon (ex: A2:A100).
- When cells are copied and pasted, the column and row are shifted to adjust to the position of the new cell. For example, if the formula "=B5" is copied and pasted one cell to the right, the formula in the new cell will change to "=C5".
- If you wish to maintain the position(s) of cell(s) in a formula, use the prefix "$" to create an absolute link to cells that won't change with copying an pasting. For example, if the formula "=$B$5" is copied and pasted one cell to the right, the formula in the new cell will still be "=$B$5". You may use the prefix "$" before the column and/or the row.
- Refer to cell(s) in another worksheet by prefixing the cells with the sheet name plus "!". Ex: "=data!B4" refers to cell B4 on a worksheet named "data". For this reason it's very helpful to name worksheets with short but informative names.
- Refer to cell(s) in another file by prefixing the cells with the file in square brackets and the sheet name plus "!". Ex: "=[anotherFile.xls]data!B4" refers to cell B4 of file "anotherFile.xls" on a worksheet named "data".

- Copying and pasting cells usually has the expected result. If not, check your use of "$" (to fix a location).
- When copying and pasting data generated by a formula, it may be best (to prevent re-calculations of data) to paste the actual value, rather than the underlying formula. To do this, copy the cell(s) as usual but then select "Paste Special > Values".

- Excel contains a reasonable range of functions which can be used by in one of at least two ways:
- Type the formula (preceded by "=") in the box next to "fx" near the top of the window, along with all of the required arguments (assuming you know what these are).
- Select "Insert > Function" and then choose the function you wish. Select a category to get a partial or complete list of all functions. A box entitled "Function Arguments" will pop up, and you can fill in the empty boxes.
- At any time, entering the function name into the help box or selecting "Help on this function" usually provides a brief explanation of the function and some examples.
- If you make a mistake with a function, you might get a suggestion to correct it. If you agree to the correction, check the input and output!
- You may find that Excel calculates functions too often to your liking (especially if it takes a while).
If that happens,
- Windows: go to Tools > Options
- Mac: go Excel > Preferences

- Some functions and a few supplementary data analyses can be accessed from "Tools > Data Analysis". If you don't see this option, you may have to install the tools. In that case, select "Tools > Add-Ins" and check Analysis ToolPak. Then try "Tools > Data Analysis" again.

- One can always use the scrollbars to select lots of cells, but with big spreadsheets, this isn't very efficient.
- To start the selection of a large matrix,
**start by selecting the bottom right cell**of the desired matrix. - Use "Control - Shift - Up arrow" to select everything above the original cell.
- Use "Control - Shift - Left arrow" to select everything to the left of the original cell.
- Use "Shift - Down arrow" to move down one row (to avoid the header line, if present).
- Use "Shift - Right arrow" to move to the right one column (to avoid any ID column(s), if present).
- Note: This should work with both Windows and Macintosh computers.

- SUM
- AVERAGE
- TRIMMEAN
- MEDIAN
- LOG
- IF
- AND
- MIN
- CONCATENATE
- TTEST
- VLOOKUP
- RANK